Basic Science

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An Introduction to Evidence-based Medicine: What Is It and Why Should You Care?

The principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) were first developed by clinical epidemiologists in the late 1980’s.1 EBM has been described as “the integration of the best research evidence with our clinical expertise and our patient’s unique values and circumstances.”2 The intent of EBM is to improve clinical practice through acquiring, assessing, and utilizing clinically relevant evidence. A fundamental principle of EBM is that, whenever possible, the evidence on which our clinical...

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Appraising New Studies of Treatment and Diagnosis

The preceding presentation in this proceedings introduced the topic of evidence-based medicine (EBM), including information about asking questions and searching for information. Perhaps the most important element of practicing EBM is critically appraising results of searching the literature for evidence regarding clinical examination and history findings, diagnostic testing, treatment, prevention, and prognosis. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce principles for critical...

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Arterial Blood Gases: Take the Mystery Out!

Blood gases are a very important part of the workup of a critical patient. They can provide a wealth of information and even point to specific disease processes. However, they are quite complex and can often be a puzzle to figure out. This article provides a solid foundation to the interpretation of blood gases. Basic physiology of acid–base regulation, the step-by-step process for evaluating blood gases, and case examples are be reviewed. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY   There are three parts...

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