2012 NAVC Proceedings

619 Resources on 2012 NAVC Proceedings

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The Coughing Dog

CANINE AIRWAY COLLAPSE Tracheal collapse is a common cause of acute or chronic cough and respiratory distress in the dog and is seen most often in toy and small breed dogs. The etiology of tracheal collapse is unknown, but suggested mechanisms include genetic defects, failure of chondrogenesis, acquired dysfunction associated with chronic small airway disease, degeneration of cartilage, trauma, or loss of innervation to the trachealis dorsalis muscle. The cervical and or intrathoracic...

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Update On Significance, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Proteinuria

SIGNIFICANCE Proteinuria is associated poorer clinical outcome in dogs and cats with kidney disease regardless of whether hypoalbuminemia or clinical signs due to hypoproteinemia (such as nephrotic syndrome) are present. In both dogs and cats the severity of proteinuria correlates with the likelihood of disease progression, uremic crisis, and eventual death. These associations between proteinuria and poor outcome are not limited to glomerular diseases— dogs with chronic renal failure and...

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Evidence-based Microalbuminuria Testing

Conventional urine dipsticks are the standard initial screening test for detection of proteinuria. Urine albumin concentration must be approximately 30 mg/dl_ or greater to be detected by this method. However, normal urine albumin concentration in dogs and cats is in fact significantly lower than this limit of detection: although there are slight differences between cats and dogs, the upper end of the reference range is approximately 1 mg/dl_. The range between these numbers (1—30 mg/dL) is...

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A Case-Based Approach To Neurologic Exams and Neurolocalization

Neurology is unlike all other disciplines in medicine. In neurology, the primary goal is to establish a neuroanatomic diagnosis, and define what anatomic region of the nervous system is affected. This is termed the “localizing the lesion." It is the keystone to creating an organized and prioritized differential list and importantly, to providing an accurate etiological diagnosis (disease process). The pursuit of subsequent diagnostic testing is based entirely on the neuroanatomic localization...

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The Current Status of Regenerative Medicine (Stem Cell Therapy)

Horses need the ability to function at a hundred percent in order to compete at the highest levels in competition. When injuries do occur, owners want their horses to return to health quickly and restored to previous athletic performance. This pressure has led veterinarians to use more novel therapies such as regenerative medicine. By no means do these therapies replace traditional treatments or surgical intervention, but in many cases they are used together to complement the other therapy....

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What to Do With the Septic Foal

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION FINDINGS1 When examining a sick neonatal foal, think sepsis until proven otherwise! It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this population, and thus should never be far from your mind. Initial clinical signs can be vague and vary widely but frequently include depression, decreased or absent suckling, and lethargy, which may progress to recumbency. Dehydration becomes a more significant problem as time progresses; tachycardia and tachypnea are common....

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Routine Camelid Procedures – Part 3: Understanding How Camelids Ambulate and Trimming Toes

Camelids and ruminants are both in the order Artiodactyla and South American camelids (SAC) belong within the suborder Tylopoda— which is Latin for padded foot. The padded foot minimizes damage to the terrain and is ideal for use in hiking and packing. There are two digits or toes on each camelid foot. Three small bones, or phalangeas, make up the skeleton of the foot. The first phalanx (P1) is connected to the fetlock and the second and third phalanx (P2 and P3) are lower down on the limb...

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Clostridial Myositis

Clostridial myositis can be a devastatingly fulminant condition with a high mortality rate; however, prompt and aggressive intervention to resolve infection and prevent complications can promote a successful outcome even in severely affected horses. ETIOLOGY Clostridial myositis (CM) represents a syndrome of often rapidly progressive muscle necrosis arising from multiplication of Clostridium organisms in muscle tissue that has recently sustained an insult creating an anaerobic...

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Tying-up: Managing Problem Horses

Chronic exertional rhabdomyolysis (CER) is a common problem in breeds including Quarter horses, Standardbreds, Thoroughbreds, Warmbloods, and Arabians. Several different etiologies exist, and frequently heritable muscular disorders are present. Often, therefore, the likely etiology of CER can be predicted from a horse‘s breed, although in many breeds the cause of CER remains to be determined. CAUSES OF CER Specific etiologic categories of CER currently include sporadic...

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Options for Treating Mammary Tumors in Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

  The most common integumental neoplasm of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the fibroadenoma, while fibroadenocarcinomas represent less than 10% of clinical cases.1 The distribution of mammary tissue is extensive and tumors may occur anywhere from the neck to the inguinal region in both males and females. Tumors can become large and exceed 8 cm in diameter. Current research suggests that most of these mammary masses are hormonally dependent and specifically responsive to estrogens and...

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