11 Resources on Hepatobiliary/Pancreatic

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The Feline Pancreas

Chronic pancreatitis continues to be a challenging problem to diagnose and treat in cats. This talk will discuss the evolving state of the art of this disease.Please note:   If you were an attendee at this AAHA Conference and received a general CE certificate, please be sure to check with your state licensing bureau regarding your eligibility to receive online credit for an individual session.This course was originally presented as a session at AAHA Austin 2016.

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Pancreatitis: Controversies in Diagnosis & Treatment

Pancreatic inflammatory disease has always been a topic of great concern and potential controversy in the veterinary world. Diagnosis of pancreatic disease has always been difficult, due to a combination of low sensitivities and specificities of traditional diagnostic tests, inconsistent and non-specific changes on imaging, and the relative inaccessibility of the pancreas for sampling in a non-invasive manner. Over the last 10-15 years, however, we have seen a dramatic increase in the number...

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Feline Liver Disease: The Yellow Cat

Proceedings of the NAVC Conference ANATOMY OF LIVER The liver is the largest gland in the body. A gland is defined simply as cells or a group of cells that secrete a substance. The liver is located in the cranial abdomen and is in direct contact with the diaphragm. It is brownish-red in color and is easily friable. It consists of two main lobes, with the right lobe being larger than the left. Most of the liver is encased in a peritoneum. The liver actually adapts to form around its...

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Canine Chronic Hepatitis: Diagnosis and Management

Take the course > Chronic hepatitis is an etiologic diverse and morphologically variable condition associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates. It is characterized by hepatocellular apoptosis or necrosis, a variable mononuclear or mixed inflammatory infiltrate, regeneration, and fibrosis. The proportion and distribution of these components vary widely. Plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages predominate with a lesser number of neutrophils. Because we see non-specific...

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Emerging Newer Liver Conditions

Several hepatobiliary disorders have recently come under increased awareness in dogs. Understanding theses specific conditions is essential in the diagnosis and management of canine liver disease. VACUOLAR HEPATOPATHY Hepatic vacuolar change is a common histological diagnosis in dogs but not cats. When we reviewed 150 consecutive liver biopsies performed at Colorado State University approximately 12% of the cases had predominately a vacuolar hepatopathy (VH) as the major histological...

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Pancreatitis in Cats – More Common Than You Think

Traditionally, exocrine pancreatic disease has been considered to be rare in cats, but over the last decade it has been recognized that exocrine pancreatic disease, and especially pancreatitis, is an important entity in cats. In a large retrospective study of necropsy findings 1.3% of 6,504 feline pancreata showed significant pathologic lesions. In a more recent study, 115 cats were evaluated at necropsy. At least three biopsies were collected from each pancreas and each biopsy was assessed...

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Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis in Dogs and Cats

Histology of a pancreatic biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. In most cases, however, this is not clinically justified as it is invasive, carries a significant morbidity, and does not alter treatment or outcome. However, the clinician must be aware that none of the noninvasive tests (imaging or blood tests) have 100% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis in dogs and cats—in fact, in most cases, the sensitivity is much lower...

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How I Work Up a High Alkaline Phosphatase

An elevation in only alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the dog is a common observation. Because there are three major isoenzymes of ALP that are measureable, multiple etiologies are possible. Alkaline phosphatase is present in a number of tissues but only two are diagnostically important, bone and liver. However, ALP is also induced by corticosteroids (endogenous or exogenous topical or systemic administration), anticonvulsant medications and possibly other drugs or “alternative” medications....

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Taking a Liver Biopsy in Dogs and Cats

The clinician should always give careful consideration to the reasons behind taking a biopsy: you take a biopsy to give you a diagnosis, prognosis, and/or guidelines for treatment. There is no clinical justification for under-taking a procedure as invasive as a liver biopsy unless it changes treatment decisions—doing it for ‘interest’ is certainly not justified. However, because the results of blood and imaging tests are nonspecific in liver disease, some form of liver biopsy is usually...

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