Sports Medicine

25 Resources on Sports Medicine

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Vitamin D Levels in Sled Dogs: Is the Human Pandemic a Cause for Concern in Our Canine Athletes?

chapter-401 VITAMIN D – THE BASICS Calcium and phosphorus are the most abundant inorganic elements in the body and it is essential to life that it is supplied on a daily basis. Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis is maintained by the integrated actions of the site of uptake (the intestines), the site of deposition (the bone) and the site of excretion (the kidney). Homeostasis is mediated by three hormones— parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D (and its metabolites)...

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Injuries in Field Trial and Hunting Dogs: Diagnosis and Treatment

chapter-402 THE UNIQUE HUNTING DOG The hunting breeds are responsible for so many of our sporting and working canines. In its element the hunting dog is an agility dog, a scent detection dog, an endurance dog and a sprint athlete...sometimes all in the same day and even moment to moment. The games played, and the game pursued may vary, but in the end these dogs were bred to work along their human partners to put food on the table and in many cases protect their owners and family....

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Therapeutic Benefits of Acupuncture in Canine Sports Medicine

Acupuncture is the insertion of fine, sterile needles into designated acupuncture points which subsequently creates a physiologic response. These physiologic responses are due to stimulation of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Acupuncture stimulation releases endogenous substances such as β-endorphins, dynorphins, enkephalins, serotonin, epinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), cortisol, and various hormones. The earliest scientific studies done on acupuncture stimulation...

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Canine Rehabilitative and Performance Nutrition

NUTRITION BASICS Diets are frequently compared using the product label (as-fed guaranteed analysis) or the dry matter basis. Both methods are inadequate for directly comparing small animal diets given the varying concentrations of moisture (as-fed values) or fiber (dry matter values) in the many commercial products presently available. This is especially critical when evaluating diets for performance or rehabilitation. The caloric basis, generally expressed as g/1000 kcal or g/Mcal, is the...

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Shoulder Lameness: Clinical and Imaging Correlation

chapter-404 In a hallmark study published in 2009 on sports related injuries in agility dogs, the shoulder was identified as the most commonly injured anatomical site.1 The prevalence of shoulder injuries in dogs is similar to that reported in humans, with shoulder pain being the third most common musculoskeletal symptom for which human patients present for medical attention.2,3 However, the human shoulder has very different biomechanical and structural characteristics than that of...

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HISTORY OF GAIT ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGY The earliest observations of gait date back to Aristotle (384–322 BCE) who reasoned that “if a man were to walk on the ground alongside a wall with a reed dipped in ink attached to his head the line traced by the reed would not be straight but zig-zag, because it goes lower when he bends and higher when he stands upright and raises himself.”1 Such an early example of gait analysis is a component of a rich history of scientists evaluating the way animals...

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Rehabilitation of Common Canine Working With Canine Athletes Agility Injuries

REHABILITATION OF COMMON CANINE WORKING WITH CANINE ATHLETES AGILITY INJURIES Chris Zink DVM, PhD, DACVSMR, CVSMT, CACZink Integrative Sports MedicineEllicott City, MD   WHAT IS DOG AGILITY? Dog agility is a dog sport in which a handler directs a dog through an obstacle course in a race for both time and accuracy. Dogs run off-leash with no food or toys as incentives, and the handler can touch neither dog nor obstacles. It is the fastest growing dog sport in the US (Figure 1) and...

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Shoulder Disorders in Dogs

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF SHOULDER DISORDERS IN DOGS Kristin Kirkby Shaw, DVM, MS, PhD, CCRT, DACVS,DACVSMRNovartis Animal HealthSeattle WA   Disorders of the shoulder joint are a common cause of forelimb lameness in active and athletic dogs. The tendons of the biceps brachii and supraspinatus muscles are frequent sites of overuse injury. Chronic injury to these structures typically results in degeneration and disorganization (as opposed to inflammation) of the tendon fibers when...

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Evidence-Based Pain Management

chapter-398 According to the Evidence Based Veterinary Medicine Association, evidence-based medicine is ”the effort to place all medical decisions on the strongest scientific proof (evidence) available.” Pain management is an integral aspect of veterinary medicine and veterinarians should adopt an evidence-based approach when making recommendations for treating pain. The purpose of this discussion will be to review the available evidence for therapies that apply most...

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Digital Injuries and Their Treatment

chapter-403 Toes function to provide surface traction and in prehension of food. Foot traction plays a role in limiting acceleration; digging in to the ground with claws appears to be necessary for maximizing propulsion in the initial hind limb push-off and first forelimb step. Efficient grip is dependent on stable joints. The concept of two main weight bearing toes has been largely disproven, the dew claw provides grip during high speed locomotion. Toe injuries can...

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