Swine

20 Resources on Swine

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Swine Influenza Virus: How the Virus Moves in Populations

SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS: HOW THE VIRUS MOVES IN POPULATIONS Considerable attention has been placed on influenza viruses in pig populations over the past few years; however; it must be noted that influenza viruses have been known to infect pigs for nearly a century in the United States. Influenza viruses cause respiratory disease in pigs which results in the typical clinical signs of coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, lethargy, fever, and anorexia. Not only do influenza viruses...

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Vaccines for Foreign Diseases of Cattle and Swine

VACCINES FOR FOREIGN DISEASES OF CATTLE AND SWINE NATIONAL VETERINARY STOCKPILE The National Veterinary Stockpile (NVS) is a national repository of critical veterinary supplies, equipment, and services to be deployed within 24 hours. It is to contain “sufficient amounts of animal vaccine, antiviral, or therapeutic products to appropriately respond to the most damaging animal diseases affecting human health and the economy” (Table 1). The NVS was mandated by Homeland Security...

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Swine Influenza Virus: How Do We Control It in Populations?

SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS: HOW DO WE CONTROL IT IN POPULATIONS? Influenza viruses are enveloped, segmented, RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae that cause respiratory disease in swine and many other species. While these characteristics are often described for infectious agents, they are often overlooked. However, these features of influenza virus are very important when assessing its epidemiology and control. First of all, influenza viruses differ greatly when compared with other...

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Mycoplasma Arthritis and How To Manage the Problem

MYCOPLASMA ARTHRITIS AND HOW TO MANAGE THE PROBLEM Although mycoplasma arthritis has been identified as a swine pathogen for a long time, the number of mycoplasma arthritis cases has been on the increase over the last few years. There have been more cases clinically as the industry continues to deal with this problem. This is primarily a problem in high-health farms or flows. These problems more likely exist in herds with significant health problems, which have just enough other...

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PRRS Area Spread - How is the Virus Moving Around and Epidemiology of Outbreaks

PRRS AREA SPREAD – HOW IS THE VIRUS MOVING AROUND AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF OUTBREAKS Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus continues to be a challenge to the swine industry. Cost to the swine industry is $1.8 million per day in losses calculated in a recent review of production numbers by Holtkamp.1 The PRRS incidence data collected by Bob Morrison and Steve Tousignant has shown an increased incidence in 2011 PRRS outbreaks verse the previous years of 2009 and 2010,...

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Foreign Animal Diseases

FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASES Vigilant observation by well-informed veterinary practitioners remains the foundation for early detection of incursions of foreign animal diseases (FADs) into North America. While classical signs of certain diseases (e.g., vesicular diseases) would likely prompt immediate concern about a potential FAD, it is important to note that lower-virulence strains of certain infectious agents foreign to North America are circulating in global animal populations; these...

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How Dirty is That Truck? Use of Diagnostic Tests To Assess Transport Biosecurity

BIOSECURITY Biosecurity is the practice of preventing pathogen introduction to the herd or farm. In the swine breeding stock business, biosecurity is woven into every aspect of production. While the most important risks to the health of the herd are certainly the introduction of new animals to the farm and the proximity to other pigs, there is a continuous threat to the herd from the livestock trailers that service the farm. To minimize the risk that moving animals poses, attention must...

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Flu Control in Young Pigs – the Role of Maternal Antibodies

INFLUENZA A VIRUS – OVERVIEW AND BACKGROUND Influenza virus (flu) is a member of the virus family Orthomyxoviridae and is classified by type and subtype, with only type A viruses commonly found in swine. Subtyping of influenza viruses is based on the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins of the virus. In North America, classical H1N1 viruses were the primary cause of influenza before the emergence of the H3N2 subtype in 1998. Currently, H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 viruses are...

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Preventing and Treating Behavior Problems in Pet Pigs

There is a resurgence of interest in the miniature pig as a pet, in part due to the unfortunate claim by new breeders that they have produced a “teacup pig.” In fact, no healthy, adult pig (2–4 years of age) less than 50 pounds has ever been documented in the pet trade, to this author’s knowledge. Miniature pigs, on average can still be expected to weigh in at 100 to 200 pounds when fully grown and this is in fact “miniature,” when compared to the average commercial swine. Miniature pigs can...

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Anesthesia and Surgery in the Miniature Pig

All miniature pigs to be kept as pets should be gonadectomized, and male pigs neutered over 4 to 6 months of age may be more tolerable indoor pets if they have had a preputial diverticulectomy. With a basic knowledge of some of the unique aspects of pig anatomy and physiology, performing these procedures in a small animal practice can be as straightforward as spaying and neutering dogs and cats. CHEMICAL RESTRAINT Chemical restraint of the pet pig offers some unique challenges...

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