Toad Intoxication

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Toad Intoxication in the Dog by Rhinella marina: The Clinical Syndrome and Current Treatment Recommendations (Review Article)

AbstractOral exposure to the secretions of Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus) can carry a high fatality rate without early and appropriate treatment. In dogs, the clinical syndrome, which is evident almost immediately, manifests in profuse ptyalism along with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic signs. Severe cardiac arrhythmias develop less frequently. This review will cover the history, toxicology, and clinical syndrome of Rhinella marina intoxication, and will discuss the...

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