Public Health

20 Resources on Public Health

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Histoplasmosis

Histoplasmosis

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What's in Your Water? Water-borne Diseases

While nearly 70% of the world is covered by water, only 2.5% of it is fresh. Only 1% of our freshwater is easily accessible, with much of the freshwater frozen in glaciers or snowfields. According to the United Nations, water use has grown at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century. By 2025, an estimated 1.8 billion people will live in areas characterized by water scarcity. According to UNESCO, in the developing world, 27% of the people living in cities do not have...

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Every Breath You Take - Airborne Diseases

The atmosphere that sustains all life on Earth is a layer of gases, roughly 100 km wide and surrounding the planet by means of the Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention, and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. Additionally, it provides the atmospheric gases (air!) necessary for life to exist through breathing and photosynthesis. By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen,...

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Bartonella Infections in Cats

BACKGROUND Many cats are exposed to Bartonella species bacteria (over 90% of cats in some colonies, and often as many as 30% to 50% or more of cats in some geographic areas where flea exposure is high. Determining which exposed cats are infected, and which infected cats have clinical signs attributable to Bartonella infection is a challenge. Most cats infected with Bartonella spp appear clinically healthy throughout their infection. Clinical conditions that appear to be most directly...

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Flav’s, Filo’s and Flu: One Health Viruses

ONE HEALTH AND ZOONOTIC VIRUSES The concept of One Health—that human, animal, and environmental health are so inextricably linked that they best be considered holistically as shared, or “One"— is increasingly viewed as the paradigm by which the world should investigate human and animal health issues and implement health protection strategies. Zoonotic viruses— pathogens that utilize animal hosts for viral replication to high enough titers to enable reinfection of arthropod vectors—...

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Canine Vaccines: Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is found in more than 150 mammalian species, and therefore risk to dogs must be dependent on the prevalence of leptospirosis in these species and subsequent exposure risk to dogs. A review of non-veterinary journals indicates the importance of several wildlife reservoirs. In 1999, researchers in Illinois reported in the Journal of Wildlife Diseases that 48% (222/459) of live-trapped raccoons were seropositive for leptospirosis; and almost all (220/222) serologic reactions...

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Leptospirosis: A Re-emerging Disease

EPIDEMIOLOGY Worldwide, leptospirosis is one of the most widespread and prevalent zoonotic diseases, with an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 cases reported each year, 30% of which are fatal.1,2 Leptospirosis is an old disease that is re-emerging as a new threat. It was considered an uncommon diagnosis until about 10 years ago, when it started being diagnosed at a much higher rate.3 It is currently an epidemic, with the most human cases reported in Hawaii, the South Atlantic Gulf and Pacific...

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