Small Mammals

32 Resources on Small Mammals

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Options for Treating Mammary Tumors in Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

  The most common integumental neoplasm of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the fibroadenoma, while fibroadenocarcinomas represent less than 10% of clinical cases.1 The distribution of mammary tissue is extensive and tumors may occur anywhere from the neck to the inguinal region in both males and females. Tumors can become large and exceed 8 cm in diameter. Current research suggests that most of these mammary masses are hormonally dependent and specifically responsive to estrogens and...

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Urinary Tract Disease in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

Urinary tract disease is a common presentation in both rabbits and guinea pigs, especially urolithiasis and renal insufficiency or failure. The kidneys of both rabbits and rodents are uniquely unipapillate. Clinical signs of urinary tract disease in both species include loss of appetite, anorexia, depression, weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria, dehydration, anuria, stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, pyuria, urinary incontinence, and urine scalding. The same principles of diagnosis apply to these...

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Rodent and Unusual Exotic Companion Mammal Dentistry: Sinking Your Teeth Into It

Now that the knowledge of the anatomy and the equipment required (oral speculum, cheek dilators, adequate burs, slow speed hand piece, stir sticks, incisor luxator, dental luxator, extractors,lights, loupes, etc.) are looked after, it is time to perform a thorough oral/dental exam. There are a couple of ways to achieve this: 1) wrestling an uncooperative patient with an otoscope , a bivalve speculum (WelchAllyn, #26308), an endoscope or 2) using general anesthesia. The only advantage to the...

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Gastrointestinal Stasis in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs: Navigating the Mine Field

Gastrointestinal stasis (GIS) is a common problem in pet rabbits and guinea pigs and is a frequent cause of malaise and morbidity. There are a myriad of potential causes of GIS. Left untreated, advanced and complicated GIS cases can lead to death and it is thus considered of prime importance to rectify. WHAT IS GASTROINTESTINAL STASIS AND WHY IS IT SO IMPORTANT? Gastrointestinal stasis basically implies a reduction in gastrointestinal motility and hence lengthened gastrointestinal...

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Advanced But Realistic Surgical Analgesia for Exotic Companion Mammals

The importance of offering appropriate analgesia in exotic companion mammals (ECM) cannot be over emphasized. Providing adequate pain relief is important from a welfare, medical, and ethical perspective. There are many factors to consider for the surgical patient and the provision of analgesia is a well established part of balanced anesthesia. This has become increasingly important in ECM as the level of surgery and diagnostics performed rises in complexity. There are documented pain...

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Rodent and Unusual Exotic Companion Mammal Dentistry: Getting Started

ANATOMYFerrets are part of the exotic companion mammal (ECM) group but their dentition is quite similar to that of cats. Their anesthesia requirements are also similar those of cats and dogs. They suffer from periodontal disease, as we all do but the only special problem they present is their propensity to break their maxillary canine teeth. Over 95% of their oral presentations are for fractured maxillary canine teeth with pulp exposure. Treatment requires extraction or endodontic therapy....

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CNS Disease: Developing the Logical Diagnostic Plan

Diagnosing central nervous system (CNS) disease in exotic companion mammals (ECM) can be challenging. Similar approaches are utilized in ECM as in cats/dogs, e.g., thorough history taking and assessment of signalment, conducting neurologic examinations, acquiring diagnostic samples, and performing diagnostic imaging. Oftentimes, the smaller size of the ECM patient may increase the difficulty associated with performing these tests. There are ever increasing numbers of case reports and evidence...

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School of Hard Knocks: What They Didn’t Teach You in Vet School - Tips and Tricks for Treating Exotic Companion Mammals

It seems that just about every tip and trick to working with exotic companion mammals is NOT taught in veterinary school. These practice gems are a combination of trial and error, colleagues helping colleagues, suggestions from companies that produce the products we use, and extrapolating what we know about other companion animals and trying it out on exotic companion mammals. This list is not exhaustive but hopefully will get you started and soon you will have your own list to share with...

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Advanced Surgery and Diagnostics for ECM: What’s Being Done Now?

The advancement of veterinary care of exotic companion mammals (ECM) is commensurate with that within canine and feline disciplines. As newer techniques and disciplines evolve in veterinary medicine many practitioners work to engage these within the realm of ECM medicine and surgery. Further to this, due to the importance of some ECM species utilized in the laboratory, there exists relatively advanced diagnostics, especially at the molecular level. This paper aims to outline some of the...

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Kinkawhat? Coatiwhat? Managing the Really Unusual Exotic Companion Mammal

WHERE’S THE INFORMATION? What do you do with a kinkajou? You could ask that about any of a dozen or so mammals that end up in the pet trade which might end up in your exam room whether or not it‘s legal for a private individual to own that species in your town, county, state or province, or even country! In order to approach the question, you have to know how to look for the information. The goal of this article is to give you the tools to educate yourself along with specific information...

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