Small Ruminants

49 Resources on Small Ruminants

Sort By:

Narrow By:

Routine Camelid Procedures – Part 3: Understanding How Camelids Ambulate and Trimming Toes

Camelids and ruminants are both in the order Artiodactyla and South American camelids (SAC) belong within the suborder Tylopoda— which is Latin for padded foot. The padded foot minimizes damage to the terrain and is ideal for use in hiking and packing. There are two digits or toes on each camelid foot. Three small bones, or phalangeas, make up the skeleton of the foot. The first phalanx (P1) is connected to the fetlock and the second and third phalanx (P2 and P3) are lower down on the limb...

Read More

Different Approaches To Mandibular Infections and Tooth Root Abscesses

MANDIBULAR OSTEOMYELITIS IN CAMELIDS Key Points Mandibular osteomyelitis in camelids presents as generalized, lytic destruction of the mandible characterized by the formation of bone sequestra from devitalized cortical bone. Successful treatment relies on long-term antimicrobial therapy, and aggressive, but judicious removal of the sequestra over an extended time period. Although dental disease is common in camelids, primary mandibular osteomyelitis is...

Read More

Strategies for Infectious Disease Control in Goat Herds

Many of the chronic infectious disease problems in the goat herd are lifelong infections from exposure of kids near the time of birth. Infectious disease control programs start with planning kid-rearing strategies to minimize infection of the neonate. Pasteurized rearing strategies are commonly used to prevent mycoplasmosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV); however, pasteurized rearing (with age segregation) also reduces the risk of Johne‘s disease (Mycobacterium...

Read More

Applying Herd Health Principles To Pygmy Goats

Pygmy goat herds are often relatively small and their owners‘ objectives less focused on production that other livestock herds served by veterinarians, making herd health approaches less commonly adopted than in dairy, fiber, or meat goat herds. This seminar will focus on how herd approaches to record keeping, infectious disease control, nutrition, reproduction, and culling strategies can be adapted to Pygmy goat herds. HERD RECORD SYSTEMS FOR PYGMY GOAT HERDS Many Pygmy goat owners...

Read More

Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Chemical Restraint in the Clinic and On the Farm – Part 2: Pain Management

A variety of disease processes cause discomfort and pain of varying degrees to our camelid patients. For some diseases, such as septic arthritis, an obvious lameness alerts us to pain. For visceral diseases, pain responses tend to be more cryptic in prey species. In camelids, colic, fractures, and trauma are all commonly encountered painful conditions. Pain signs include guarding affected area, reactivity to touch, vocalization, grunting, depression, recumbency, anorexia, isolation, elbow...

Read More

Small Ruminant Tips – Part 1: Urolithiasis

Surgical treatment of urolithiasis in ruminants traditionally was limited to short-term salvage procedures in feedlot animals destined for early slaughter. These methods often involved resection of the penis, experienced numerous complications, and had variable success rates. More recently, an increase in the number of small ruminants kept as pets has led to the development of several other techniques for resolution of urolithiasis. The intent is to develop a procedure which does not...

Read More

Cesarean Section in Small Ruminants – Part 1: Management of Dystocia in Sheep and Goats

Dystocia is relatively uncommon in with a herd goal of fewer than 5% of birthings requiring assistance. Problem birthings may be defined as failure of transition from stage I to stage II labor or when little to no progress is made for 30 minutes or more after the start of stage II labor. Stage I labor is defined as preparation for fetal expulsion and includes restlessness, decreased appetite, isolation from the herd, preparing a birthing area, and leading up to the early uterine contractions....

Read More

Small Ruminant Fracture Repair

In general, long bone fractures of New World camelids, sheep, and goats have a favorable prognosis for healing. Secondary complications associated with fracture location and severity, although uncommon, may affect outcome. Methods of fixation vary, but both internal fixation and different forms of external fixation, usually in the form of casting and transcortical pinning, have been successful. Fracture type, location, economic impact, and aftercare often dictate methodology. Existence of an...

Read More

Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Chemical Restraint in the Clinic and On the Farm

Regional perfusion involves delivering a substance, usually an antibiotic, under pressure to a selected region of a limb through the vascular or medullary bone system. The substance reaches target tissues by diffusion from the surrounding vascular tissues. Regional perfusion appears to be an effective method of delivering high concentrations of antibiotic to infected tissues. We postulate it could also be used to deliver analgesics to a local region. The technique involves placing a catheter...

Read More

Deciding When To Refer the Camelid Case

Veterinary practitioners providing primary care to camelid patients may be faced with the decision to send medical or surgical cases to referral hospitals. Reasons for referral vary. Often, secondary or tertiary referral care is provided by specialists located in university teaching hospitals or in private facilities. Referral care may involve extended hospitalization and costs. Prognosis for return to full function is dependent on the nature and stage of the problem. Regardless of outcome...

Read More

Founding Sponsors