Zoological Medicine

14 Resources on Zoological Medicine

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Reptile Zoonoses

Recently, zoonoses have been a hot topic in small animal medicine. This emphasis has not been brought into the exotic animal practice yet despite there being numerous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases in exotic animals. The reasons for the recent emphasis on zoonoses are based on liability and our more comprehensive understanding and knowledge of small animal parasites and pathogens, as well as the increase in animal pathogen crossover into humans. The other reason for its emphasis in small...

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Elephant Medicine Made Easy

Elephant medicine is made challenging by the great size and peculiar physiology of its patients. Veterinarians who care for elephants often find that techniques and treatments that are typical and reliable for other species fail utterly and completely in elephants. Nevertheless, over the past several decades, clinicians have learned a great deal, and elephants are thriving in human care, not only living long lives, but breeding and raising babies. BIRTH TO ADULTHOOD Following a 22-month...

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Great Ape Medicine Made Easy

chapter-515 INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE Of the four ape species discussed below, three originate from Africa (chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas) and one species lives in Asia (orangutans). We Americans have become accustomed to seeing these amazing animals in zoological parks as well as on television and in the movies. It is important, however, to remember that these are highly endangered, wild animals whose populations are struggling to exist in habitats that are...

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Rhinoceros Medicine Made Easy

chapter-514 TAXONOMY AND ANATOMY The Order Perissodactyla contains three Families: Equidae (horses), Tapiridae (tapirs), and Rhinocerotidae (rhinoceroses). The rhinoceroses (rhinos) consist of five extant species (Table 1). Current populations are at risk of extinction due to severe poaching and habitat loss.1 Rhinos are large, herbivorous, hind-gut fermenters and have several anatomic features that pose unique challenges to the veterinarian. Rhinos have extremely thick skin (up...

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Giraffe Medicine Made Easy

The only thing easy about giraffes is watching them gracefully browsing in their homeland of Africa or at your favorite zoo. Otherwise these extremely specialized members of the Order Artiodactylia are a veterinarian’s nightmare. Their evolution to specialized tree top browsers is the result millions of years of competition among the numerous herbivores on Africa’s planes, deserts, and scrub lands. Their elongated form has given them sole access to the upper branches of acacia trees, but it...

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Anesthesia - The Tall and the Small, One Size Does Not Fit All

Anesthesia is an integral part of zoological medicine. Even a basic clinical examination mostly requires sedation or anesthesia, as most patients are either too timid, too fast, or too dangerous to examine without chemical immobilization. Most drugs and instruments are well known from domestic animal or human medicine, but often new combinations or modifications to existing equipment are essential. This talk is intended as a primer to the field of “zoological anesthesiology” and will include...

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The Golden Years - Managing the Health of Geriatric Animals

As better husbandry and veterinary care lengthen the lifespans of animals in captivity, veterinarians are spending more time on geriatric care. Just as medical science has allowed humans to live longer, the same advances are being applied to animals in captivity, with many now living far beyond their life expectancy in the wild. As animals live longer, they often, just like humans, need more medical treatment, medications, and therapy as they near the end of their lives. Veterinary medicine’s...

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Apples to Apples in a Fruit Salad World - Comparative Medicine: Where It Works and Where It Doesn't

Comparative medicine is the study of disease processes across species and is based on the study of naturally occurring diseases of animals that also afflict humans. The concept of comparative medicine is very old, dating back to the ancient Greeks who understood that dissecting and studying animals could yield important clues to understanding human diseases.15 We know, as veterinarians and researchers of animal health and disease, that animals frequently may suffer from disease states such as...

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Keeping a Good Leg to Stand on - Foot Problems in Zoo Animals

Foot health problems, if not addressed promptly and effectively, can have devastating effects on the well-being of a wide range of zoo animals. Foot problems are not limited to megavetebrates such as elephants, rhinos, and giraffes. A wide range of hoofstock species, small mammals, large carnivores, birds, reptiles, and amphibians can suffer from foot problems. Some of the conditions reported include pododermatitis, overgrown nails/hooves, nail/hoof cracks, trauma, and abscesses, among others...

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Cool Zoo Case Gastric Pneumocystosis in a Group of Black and White Ruffed Lemurs

Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) with associated eosinophilic inflammation was documented in several black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) at the Tulsa Zoo. This disease is more commonly described in humans and characterized by multilocular gas-filled cystic spaces located within the wall of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In humans these cystic spaces can occur in any location along the GI tract as well as within the associated connective and lymphatic tissues....

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